Atlas of Hillforts of Britain and Ireland

EN0104: Barrock Fell  

(Barrock Tell)

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HER:  Cumbria 707

NMR:  NY 44 NE 8 (11330)

SM:  1007874

NGR:  NY 4645 4756

X:  346450  Y:  547560  (EPSG:27700)

Boundary:  

Summary

Lying 400m NW of the summit of Barrock Fell, the cropmark and earthwork remains of a probable slight univallate hillfort. Aerial photographs and lidar show a single D-shaped ditched enclosure measuring 115m by 112m enclosing approximately 1ha, with the earthworks in the SW masked by Great Barrock Wood but shown by lidar to be extant. Cropmarks suggest a slightly out-turned entrance in the NE. No internal features are visible. Scheduled. Not recorded on OS mapping and no investigation is known.

Status

Citizen Science:  ✗  

Reliability of Data:  Confirmed

Reliability of Interpretation:  Confirmed

Location

X:  -315583  Y:  7327016  (EPSG: 3857)

Longitude:  -2.834929  Latitude:  54.820032  (EPSG:4326)

Country:  England

Current County or Unitary Authority:  Cumbria

Historic County:   Cumberland

Current Parish/Community/Council/Townland:  Hesket

Condition

The site is visible as a cropmark on aerial photographs and earthwork on lidar in Great Barrock Wood. Principle threat is from ploughing (Heritage at Risk Register 2013)

Extant:  
Cropmark:  
Likely Destroyed:  

Land Use

Lies in an area of arable fields. A conifer plantation is present on the western edge.

Woodland:  
Commercial Forestry Plantation:  
Parkland:  
Pasture (Grazing):  
Arable:  
Scrub/Bracken:  
Bare Outcrop:  
Heather/Moorland:  
Heath:  
Built-up:  
Coastal Grassland:  
Other:  

Landscape

Hillfort Type

A univallate hillslope fort lying at 183m OD on the upper slopes of Barrock Fell.

Contour Fort:  
Partial Contour Fort:  
Promontory Fort:  
Hillslope Fort:  
Level Terrain Fort:  
Marsh Fort:  
Multiple Enclosure Fort:  

Topographic Position

Hilltop:  
Coastal Promontory:  
Inland Promontory:  
Valley Bottom:  
Knoll/Hillock/Outcrop:  
Ridge:  
Cliff/Plateau-edge/Scarp:  
Hillslope:  
Lowland:  
Spur:  

Dominant Topographic Feature:  Situated on the upper slopes of Barrock Fell.

Aspect

North:  
Northeast:  
East:  
Southeast:  
South:  
Southwest:  
West:  
Northwest:  
Level:  

Elevation

Altitude:  183.0m

Boundary

Boundary Type:  

Second HER:  

Second Current County or Unitary Authority:  

Second Historic County:  

Second Current Parish/Community/Council/Townland:  

Dating Evidence

Undated, presumed Iron Age

Reliability:  D - None

Pre 1200BC:  
1200BC - 800BC:  
1200BC - 800BC:  
400BC - AD50:  
AD50 - AD400:  
AD400 - AD 800:  
Post AD800:  
Unknown:  

Pre Hillfort Activity:  ✗  

Post Hillfort Activity:  ✓  Surface finds of Roman pottery

Artefactual:  Surface finds of 29 sherds of coarse greyware and one small samian fragment in May 1978. Donated by Dr D Welsby, Univ of Newcastle upon Tyne, June 1983. At Tullie House, Acc no 121-1983 (Richardson 1990).

Investigations

Recorded on aerial photograph in 1949. General reference in Challis and Harding (1975). Scheduled in 1974. Environment Agency lidar survey

LiDAR Survey (Uncertain):  
Other (1949):  Aerial photograph/St Joseph, 9/7/49
Other (1974):  Scheduled
1st Identified Written Reference (1975):  

Interior Features

Surface finds of 29 sherds of coarse Roman greyware and one small samian fragment. No other evidence.

Water Source

None:  
Spring:  
Stream:  
Pool:  
Flush:  
Well:  
Other:  

Surface

No Known Features:  
Round Stone Structures:  
Rectangular Stone Structures:  
Curvilinear Platforms:  
Other Roundhouse Evidence:  
Pits:  
Quarry Hollows:  
Other:  

Excavation

No Known Excavation:  
Pits:  
Postholes:  
Roundhouses:  
Rectangular Structures:  
Roads/Tracks:  
Quarry Hollows:  
Other:  
Nothing Found:  

Geophysics

No Known Geophysics:  
Pits:  
Roundhouses:  
Rectangular Structures:  
Roads/Tracks:  
Quarry Hollows:  
Other:  
Nothing Found:  

Finds

Surface finds of 29 sherds of coarse Roman greyware and one small samian fragment

No Known Finds:  
Pottery:  
Metal:  
Metalworking:  
Human Bones:  
Animal Bones:  
Lithics:  
Environmental:  
Other:  

Aerial

APs Not Checked:  
None:  
Roundhouses:  
Rectangular Structures:  
Pits:  
Postholes:  
Roads/Tracks:  
Other:  

Entrances

Cropmarks suggest a slightly out-turned entrance in the NE.

Total Number of Breaks Through Ramparts:  

Number of Possible Original Entrances:   

Guard Chambers:  

Chevaux de Frise:  ✗  

Entrance 1 (Northeast):  Out-turned

Enclosing Works

D-shaped ditched enclosure measuring approximately 115m by 112m enclosing approximately 1ha. it is surrounded by a single infilled ditch. Lidar suggests it is still extant in places.

Enclosed Area 1:  1.0ha.
Enclosed Area 2:  
Enclosed Area 3:  
Enclosed Area 4:  
Total Enclosed Area:  1.0ha.

Total Footprint Area:  

Multi-period Enclosure System:  ✗  Interpretation from lidar suggests it is much larger than the 65m diameter (0.3ha) reported by Challis and Harding (1975).

Ramparts Form a Continuous Circuit:  ✓  

Number of Ramparts:  1:  A sub-circular enclosure measuring approximately 65m in diameter; it is surrounded by a single infilled ditch.

Number of Ramparts NE Quadrant:  1
Number of Ramparts SE Quadrant:  1
Number of Ramparts SW Quadrant:  1
Number of Ramparts NW Quadrant:  1

Current Morphology

Partial Univallate:  
Univallate:  
Partial Bivallate:  
Bivallate:
Partial Multivallate:  
Multivallate:  
Unknown:  

Multi-period Morphology

Partial Univallate:  
Univallate:  
Partial Bivallate:  
Bivallate:  
Partial Multivallate:  
Multivallate:  

Surface Evidence

Earthworks in woodland not investigated

None:  
Earthen Bank:  
Stone Wall:  
Rubble:  
Wall-walk:  
Evidence of Timber:  
Vitrification:  
Other Burning:  
Palisade:  
Counter Scarp Bank:  
Berm:  
Unfinished:  
Other:  

Excavated Evidence

None:  
Earthen Bank:  
Stone Wall:  
Murus Duplex:  
Timber-framed:  
Timber-laced:  
Vitrification:  
Other Burning:  
Palisade:  
Counter Scarp Bank:  
Berm:  
Unfinished:  
No Known Excavation:  
Other:  

Gang Working

Gang Working:  ✗ 

Ditches

Ditches:  

Number of Ditches:  1:  Single infilled ditch.

Annex

Annex:  ✗  

References

Challis A.J. and Harding, D.W. 1975. Later prehistory from the Trent to the Tyne. BAR (British series 1) (1974) - 20 (i) Page(s)122

Challis A.J. and Harding, D.W. 1975. Later prehistory from the Trent to the Tyne. BAR (British series 1) (1974) - 20 (ii) Page(s)46

Hogg, A.H.A. 1979. British Hill-Forts. An Index. British Archaeological Reports, British Series 62.

Richardson, C. 1990. A catalogue of recent acquisitions to Carlisle Museum and reported finds from the Cumbrian area, Trans Cumberland Westmorland Antiq Archaeol Soc 66, 36

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The online version of the Atlas of Hillforts of Britain and Ireland should be cited as:

Lock, G. and Ralston, I. 2017.  Atlas of Hillforts of Britain and Ireland. [ONLINE] Available at: https://hillforts.arch.ox.ac.uk.

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