Atlas of Hillforts of Britain and Ireland

SC3932: Traprain Law  

(Dumpender Law)

Sources: Esri, DigitalGlobe, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, GeoEye, USDA FSA, USGS, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, and the GIS User Community

HER:  East Lothian Council MEL974

NMR:  NT 57 SE 1 (56374)

SM:  755

NGR:  NT 5800 7470

X:  358000  Y:  674700  (EPSG:27700)

Boundary:  

Summary

The craggy outline of Traprain Law, which is a distinctive landmark along the Lothian Plain, has been tailored to a series of fortifications that rank amongst the largest in Scotland, at its maximum extent enclosing an area of about 16ha. While noted in 1792 by the minister of the parish of Whittingehame, who recorded what was probably the rampart known as the Cruden Wall and speculated that it had been constructed as a place of safety against the Danes or the English (Stat Acct, ii, 1792, 349-50), the antiquarian record is curiously mute, and the fort is not annotated on any county maps, nor the first two editions of the OS 6-inch map. making its first appearance with a perceptive depiction of the ramparts on the revised edition of the first OS 25-inch map (Haddingtonshire 1907, sheet 11.1). This depiction evidently formed the base for Alexander Curle's first plan (1915, 141, fig 1), produced at the outset of the campaign of excavations 1914-15 and 1919-23, and the plan subsequently published with the addition of contours, and a summary probably written by Curle, in the County Inventory for East Lothian (RCAHMS 1924, 94-9, no.148, fig 137). The extent of these excavations and subsequent interventions in 1939 by Stuart Cruden (1940), and 1947 by Gerhard Bersu (Close-Brooks 1983), were depicted on a plan drawn up in 1955 by two teams from RCAHMS and published by Richard Feachem (1956, opp 286, fig 2), and it is this plan that has formed the basis for all subsequent discussion of the defensive sequence (Hogg 1975, 95-9; Jobey 1976; Close-Brooks 1983, 207-9). In essence Feachem postulated a series of four perimeters, expanding from what is now confirmed in the most recent campaign of work (Armit, Dunwell and Hunter 1999) to be the remains of a rampart enclosing about 10 acres on the summit. Apparently, open along the cliff-edge that forms the SE flank of the hill, the line of this rampart can be traced along the SW lip of the summit area before returning across the slope on the NW for a distance of up to 300m, where it variously forms a low stony scarp or a line of boulders, the latter apparently outlining an entrance facing out NNW towards North Berwick Law, though the alignment on this other East Lothian landmark is not as precise as some would wish to believe. The lip of the summit area is also adopted by what is probably an 8ha enclosure, following the natural crest-line down across the slope on the NW before turning back along the northern flank where it can be followed as an intermittent terrace back to the edge of the quarry that scars the NE tip of the hill. This rampart was exposed in three trenches by Cruden (1940), along with a lower rampart reduced to a terrace that descends the slope westwards. The possible junction between these two ramparts that lies a little further ENE and has not been excavated, but Feachem proposed that this was part of a later 12ha enclosure that had been subsumed on the W into the massive rampart that forms a bold terrace extending along the NW flank of the hill and swinging southwards along a pronounced lip on the SW face of the hill to enclose an area of about 16ha. Joanna Close-Brooks expressed some doubt as to the existence of this 12ha enclosure (1983, 209), though its slightness is perhaps accounted for in the robbing that must have taken place to build subsequent ramparts, and whether it is really embedded in the line of the largest enclosure, or perhaps cuts across the slope along a terrace intersected by a trackway mounting the slope on the NW, can only be demonstrated by further excavation. What is certain, however, is that a stone wall, the Cruden Wall, built along the line of the massive terrace rampart of the 16ha enclosure on the SW, mounts the slope on the NW, not only crossing the line of the supposed 12ha enclosure here, but also that of the 8ha enclosure, this latter stratigraphic relationship demonstrated by Cruden (1940); this wall takes in about 12ha and was extensively examined by Cruden above the quarry on the NE, not far from where the wall turned back onto the cliff-edge on the S and was pierced by an entrance. Elsewhere, the Cruden Wall exploits three earlier entrances through the terrace rampart on the WNW and W, albeit that the passage through the southern of the two gaps on the W appears to have been narrowed, while a fourth entrance through the terrace rampart lies on the N adjacent to the quarry. These entrances have witnessed heavy traffic and are approached on the NW and W by heavily worn trackways. Within the interior one trackway climbs obliquely up the slope from the narrowed entrance to a natural cleft in the lip of the summit area near the cliff-edge on the S, which is likely to have been an entrance into both the 4ha and 8ha enclosures, while a second track mounts the slope from the NW entrance, firstly to reach the plateau area where Curle and James Cree dug extensively, and then obliquely NE to a gap in the rampart on the NW of the 8ha enclosure, its course picked up by a line of stones flanking its NW side and leading towards a string of three or four rectangular buildings. Elsewhere, on the slope forming SW flank of the interior, Feachem recorded numerous small elongated platforms that appear better suited to rectangular structures than circular ones. The excavations by Curle and Cree encountered deep stratified deposits on the plateau area halfway up this slope, recovering numerous hearths and fragments of both circular and rectangular structures, though the record of their discoveries is too all intents and purposes irrecoverable. The area had certainly been intensively occupied during the Roman Iron Age, providing a wealth of Roman goods that far outstrips any other site in Scotland and, unusually, seems to have prospered from the 1st century AD through at least the 3rd and 4th centuries into the 5th century. Mainly excavated in spits, from the lower levels they also recovered a large assemblage of Late Bronze Age metalwork. While these finds suggest two principal horizons of occupation on the hill, the dating of the ramparts is imperfect, though single entity radiocarbon dates from contexts below the rampart of the 4ha enclosure on the summit fall in the Late Bronze Age, and an indistinguishable date was returned from an ashy deposit that accrued against its inner face (Armit, Dunwell, Hunter and Nelis 2005). Otherwise the Roman finds from the terrace bank, clearly place this in the early centuries AD, though Close-Brooks has queried whether these items relate to material that has accrued behind an earlier, perhaps pre-Roman, rampart a little further down the slope, rather than from the rampart core itself; this possibility becomes stronger in the light of the unpublished radiocarbon dates returned more recently from samples recovered in 1986 by Peter Strong from the outer defences adjacent to the quarry on the NE. Nevertheless, 3rd and 4th century finds recovered by Bersu and Cruden clearly provide a terminus post quem for the Cruden Wall, while Close-Brooks also suggests that a pin excavated by Cruden from an earlier structure above the quarry might place its construction in the 5th century AD. However, in the light of an excavation carried out in 1986 at the foot of the hill on the NE, which found that two palisade trenches had been replaced by a bank and ditch and finally superseded by an earthen rampart with an external stone revetment (Strong 1986), it would be naive to suggest that the plan of the visible elements of the defences can be understood with a simple model of expansion or contraction, and that the narrow trenches excavated to date provide any real insight into their construction or chronology. Whether the Late Bronze Age activity attested by the finds on the western end of the hill fell within a Late Bronze Age enclosure, has yet to be demonstrated.

Status

Citizen Science:  ✗  

Reliability of Data:  Confirmed

Reliability of Interpretation:  Confirmed

Location

X:  -297708  Y:  7551155  (EPSG: 3857)

Longitude:  -2.674357  Latitude:  55.963508  (EPSG:4326)

Country:  Scotland

Current County or Unitary Authority:  East Lothian

Historic County:   East Lothian

Current Parish/Community/Council/Townland:  Prestonkirk

Condition

A deep quarry, now disused, has been cut into the NE tip of the hill, cutting the lower rampart

Extant:  
Cropmark:  
Likely Destroyed:  

Land Use

Woodland:  
Commercial Forestry Plantation:  
Parkland:  
Pasture (Grazing):  
Arable:  
Scrub/Bracken:  
Bare Outcrop:  
Heather/Moorland:  
Heath:  
Built-up:  
Coastal Grassland:  
Other:  

Landscape

Hillfort Type

Partially cliff-edged.

Contour Fort:  
Partial Contour Fort:  
Promontory Fort:  
Hillslope Fort:  
Level Terrain Fort:  
Marsh Fort:  
Multiple Enclosure Fort:  

Topographic Position

Hilltop:  
Coastal Promontory:  
Inland Promontory:  
Valley Bottom:  
Knoll/Hillock/Outcrop:  
Ridge:  
Cliff/Plateau-edge/Scarp:  
Hillslope:  
Lowland:  
Spur:  

Dominant Topographic Feature:  Noted landmark widely visible

Aspect

North:  
Northeast:  
East:  
Southeast:  
South:  
Southwest:  
West:  
Northwest:  
Level:  

Elevation

Altitude:  221.0m

Boundary

Boundary Type:  

Second HER:  

Second Current County or Unitary Authority:  

Second Historic County:  

Second Current Parish/Community/Council/Townland:  

Dating Evidence

Radiocarbon dating from the most recent interventions broadly confirm the chronology presented by the artefacts, with a Late Bronze Age phase, possibly associated with the earliest enclosures on the hill, and an intensive Late Iron Age and Roman Iron Age phase, unusually continuing probably into the 5th century AD. Dates from the material recovered by Peter Strong, however, fall between these two extremes. Horn (Forthcoming) suggests 4ha summit enclosure start: 915-850 cal. BC, end: 865-800 cal. BC, 4ha summit enclosure span: 0-55 years, outer enclosure palisade: 480-390 cal. BC, outer enclosure rampart: 370-200 cal. BC

Reliability:  A - High

Pre 1200BC:  
1200BC - 800BC:  
1200BC - 800BC:  
400BC - AD50:  
AD50 - AD400:  
AD400 - AD 800:  
Post AD800:  
Unknown:  

Pre Hillfort Activity:  ✓  Numerous Neolithic stone axes were found in the excavations, in addition to rock art panels and Bronze Age urn-burials, and possibly a robbed cairn on the summit

Post Hillfort Activity:  ✓  Traces of cultivation, and a small plantation ring on the summit. Noted as the site of a beacon in 1547

Artefactual:  Wide range of Roman Iron Age goods, including coins, and a more limited range of Late Bronze Age metalwork
C14:  Wide suite of unpublished radiocarbon dates from a range of contexts

Investigations

While depicted as a topographical feature on a succession of county maps dating from the 18th century, and identified as an ancient place of refuge in the Statistical Account (ii, 1792, 349-50), Traprain Law is not shown as a fort on either the 1st or 2nd edition of the OS 6-inch map. The finds from the numerous interventions on the hill are held in the NMAS and the RCAHMS collection also holds an extensive archive of notes and drawings, together with plans and numerous ground and excavation views as well as extensive oblique aerial photography under a wide range of conditions.

1st Identified Written Reference (1792):  Brief description mentioning the rampart (Stat Acct, ii, 1792, 349-50)
1st Identified Map Depiction (1906):  Annotated Dunpender, with a depiction of the ramparts on the revised edition of the first 25-inch OS map (Haddingtonshire 1907, sheet 11.1)
Earthwork Survey (1914):  Plan and description by Alexander Curle (1915; RCAHMS 1924, 94-9, no.148, fig 137)
Excavation (1914):  Directed by Alexander Curle and assisted by James Cree (Curle 1915)
Excavation (1915):  Directed by Alexander Curle and James Cree (1916)
Excavation (1919):  Directed by Alexander Curle and assisted by John Bruce (Curle 1920)
Excavation (1920):  Directed by Alexander Curle and James Cree (1921)
Excavation (1921):  Directed by James Cree and Alexander Curle (1922)
Excavation (1922):  Directed by James Cree (1923)
Other (1923):  Scheduled
Excavation (1923):  Directed by James Cree (1924)
Other (1931):  Recording of rock art surfaces (Edwards 1935)
Excavation (1939):  Directed by Stuart Cruden (1940)
Excavation (1947):  Directed by Gerhard Bersu (Bersu 1948; Close-Brooks 1983)
Earthwork Survey (1951):  Sketch-plan by A H A Hogg (1951, 212; 1975; 95-9, fig 12)
Earthwork Survey (1955):  Planned during RCAHMS Survey of Marginal Lands (Feachem 1956; 1963, 120-1; RCAHMS ELD 137/38)
Earthwork Survey (1955):  Reputedly a chain survey was conducted by Richard Atkinson with students from Edinburgh, but the results do not appear to have survived
Other (1962):  Revised at 1:2500 by the OS
Other (1975):  Re-Scheduled
Other (1976):  Visited by the Hill-fort Study Group
Earthwork Survey (1983):  RCAHMS 1955 plan with re-orientated grid of the Curle and Cree excavations (Close-Brooks 1983, 208, fig 95)
Excavation (1986):  Lower rampart at the E end (Strong 1986)
Excavation (1996):  Salvage work and evaluation following a vegetation fire (Hunter 1996; Rees and Hunter 2000)
Excavation (1997):  Salvage work (Rees 1997; Rees and Hunter 2000)
Geophysical Survey (1999):  Unpublished (Armit, Dunwell and Hunter 1999; RCAHMS MS/726/177)
Excavation (1999):  Evaluation (Armit, Dunwell and Hunter 1999)
Earthwork Survey (1999):  As yet unprocessed (Armit, Dunwell and Hunter 1999)
Excavation (2000):  Also stray finds (Armit, Dunwell and Hunter 2000)
Other (2001):  Environmental sampling and stray finds (Armit, Church, Dunwell and Hunter 2001; Hunter 2001)
Excavation (2003):  Salvage following a fire (Hunter and Dunwell 2003)
Excavation (2004):  Hoard of Late Bronze Age axes also found (Armit, Badger, Hunter & Nelis 2005; Armit and McCartney 2005)
Excavation (2005):  Salvage work (Hunter 2005)
Excavation (2006):  Completion of salvage work (Hunter 2006)
Excavation (2011):  Evaluation (Hunter 2011)

Interior Features

Relatively speaking featureless, though the plan drawn up by RCAHMS in 1955 depicts a series elongated platforms on the lower slopes on the W that are better suited to rectangular structures than circular ones. Curle and Cree's excavations dug through deep stratified deposits in spits, conflating fragmentary circular and rectangular structures and hearths in an incomprehensible muddle

Water Source

There is a peat-filled sump on the summit area, and the OS 1:25,000 map shows a spring on the upper N slopes

None:  
Spring:  
Stream:  
Pool:  
Flush:  
Well:  
Other:  

Surface

Several platforms have been noted, but relatively few compared with the extent of the fort

No Known Features:  
Round Stone Structures:  
Rectangular Stone Structures:  
Curvilinear Platforms:  
Other Roundhouse Evidence:  
Pits:  
Quarry Hollows:  
Other:  

Excavation

Wide range of material uncovered in the early excavations that was not understood at the time and from which a few plans clearly indicate the presence of round-houses. Later excavations have revealed traces of various other structures, some of which are evidently medieval in date (see Rees and Hunter 2000); a long cist has also been found on the sumit

No Known Excavation:  
Pits:  
Postholes:  
Roundhouses:  
Rectangular Structures:  
Roads/Tracks:  
Quarry Hollows:  
Other:  
Nothing Found:  

Geophysics

Largely ineffective

No Known Geophysics:  
Pits:  
Roundhouses:  
Rectangular Structures:  
Roads/Tracks:  
Quarry Hollows:  
Other:  
Nothing Found:  

Finds

Traprain Law has the largest and most varied assemblage of cultural material of any fortified site in Scotland, not only including Neolithic stone axes and Early Bronze Age cremations in urns, but an extensive range of Late Bronze Age metalwork, and a mass of Roman Goods relating to occupation from the 1st century AD onwards and terminating with the spectacular silver hoard known as the Traprain treasure (Curle 1923). See Burley 1956; Curle 1932; Robertson 1970, 226; Rees and Hunter 2000; to some extent itemised in categories and listed with references in RCAHMS Canmore

No Known Finds:  
Pottery:  
Metal:  
Metalworking:  
Human Bones:  
Animal Bones:  
Lithics:  
Environmental:  
Other:  

Aerial

NO APPARENT FEATURES

APs Not Checked:  
None:  
Roundhouses:  
Rectangular Structures:  
Pits:  
Postholes:  
Roads/Tracks:  
Other:  

Entrances

See main summary

Total Number of Breaks Through Ramparts:  9:  gaps in all periods

Number of Possible Original Entrances:  4:  Generalised to four known in the maximum extent (4-7), but with others disposed across the other circuits (1-3, and 8-9)

Guard Chambers:  

Chevaux de Frise:  ✗  

Entrance 1 (Northwest):  Simple Gap:  In the robbed 4ha enclosure and roughly aligned on North Berwick Law
Entrance 2 (Southwest):  Simple Gap:  Cleft in the lip of the summit area approached by a trackway and a natural entrance for both the 4ha and 8ha enclosures
Entrance 3 (West):  Simple Gap:  Gap in the 8ha wall approached by a trackway, though this may have cut through at a later date
Entrance 4 (North):  In-turned:  Through the outermost terrace rampart adjacent the quarry; impression of inturns may be created by deep wear
Entrance 5 (West):  Simple Gap:  Through both the outermost terrace rampart and the Cruden Wall, but narrowed by the latter; approached obliquely by trackway exposing the visitor's right side
Entrance 5 (West):  Oblique:  Approached obliquely by a trackway exposing the visitor's left side
Entrance 6 (West):  Simple Gap:  Through both the outermost terrace rampart and the Cruden Wall and approached by a trackway
Entrance 6 (West):  Oblique:  Approached obliquely by a trackway exposing the visitor's left side
Entrance 7 (Northwest):  Simple Gap:  Through the outermost terrace rampart and the Cruden Wall at the NW corner and approached obliquely by a trackway
Entrance 7 (Northwest):  Oblique:  Approached obliquely by a trackway exposing the visitor's right side
Entrance 8 (Northwest):  Simple Gap:  Appears to be a later cut through both the outermost terrace rampart and the Cruden Wall, approached by a trackway
Entrance 9 (Northeast):  Simple Gap:  Through the Cruden Wall at the NE apex of the summit area

Enclosing Works

At least five lines of ramparts are identified on the RCAHMS plan of 1955, but there are other terraces with stone along their leading edges, particularly on the SW, which may represent further lines of defence

Enclosed Area 1:  4.0ha.
Enclosed Area 2:  8.1ha.
Enclosed Area 3:  12.1ha.
Enclosed Area 4:  16.2ha.
Total Enclosed Area:  16.2ha.

Total Footprint Area:  

Multi-period Enclosure System:  ✓  The Cruden Wall clearly overrides all the other defences bar the rampart of the 4ha enclosure on the summit area.

Ramparts Form a Continuous Circuit:  ✗  These represent several periods of enclosure, each of which may have been univallate

Number of Ramparts:  5

Number of Ramparts NE Quadrant:  2
Number of Ramparts SE Quadrant:  
Number of Ramparts SW Quadrant:  3
Number of Ramparts NW Quadrant:  5

Current Morphology

Partial Univallate:  
Univallate:  
Partial Bivallate:  
Bivallate:
Partial Multivallate:  
Multivallate:  
Unknown:  

Multi-period Morphology

Partial Univallate:  
Univallate:  
Partial Bivallate:  
Bivallate:  
Partial Multivallate:  
Multivallate:  

Surface Evidence

None:  
Earthen Bank:  
Stone Wall:  
Rubble:  
Wall-walk:  
Evidence of Timber:  
Vitrification:  
Other Burning:  
Palisade:  
Counter Scarp Bank:  
Berm:  
Unfinished:  
Other:  

Excavated Evidence

None:  
Earthen Bank:  
Stone Wall:  
Murus Duplex:  
Timber-framed:  
Timber-laced:  
Vitrification:  
Other Burning:  
Palisade:  
Counter Scarp Bank:  
Berm:  
Unfinished:  
No Known Excavation:  
Other:  

Gang Working

Gang Working:  ✗ 

Ditches

Ditches:  

Number of Ditches:  

Annex

Annex:  ✗  

References

Armit, I and McCartney, M (2005) 'The new rock art discoveries at Traprain Law. Past: Newsletter of the Prehistoric Society 49 (April 2005), 4-5

Armit, I, Dunwell, A and Hunter, F (1999) 'Traprain Law (Prestonkirk parish), Neolithic axehead; Iron Age and medieval occupation'. Disc Exc Scot (1999), 30-31

Armit, I, Dunwell, A and Hunter, F (2000) 'Traprain Law, East Lothian (Prestonkirk parish), later prehistoric hillfort; occupation deposits'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 1 (2000), 29

Armit, I, Church, M, Dunwell, A and Hunter, F (2001) 'Traprain Law, East Lothian (Prestonkirk parish), pond on hillfort'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 2 (2001), 37

Armit, I, Badger, S, Hunter, F and Nelis, E (2005) 'Traprain Law (Prestonkirk parish), later prehistoric hillfort; late Bronze Age axe hoard; prehistoric rock art; medieval building'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 6 (2005), 55-6

Bersu, G 1948 'Excavation in Scotland, 1947'. Archaeol Newsletter 1.5 (1948, August), 12

Burley, E (1956) 'A catalogue and survey of the metal-work from Traprain Law'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 89 (1955-6), 118-226

Close-Brooks, J (1983) 'Dr Bersu's excavations at Traprain Law, 1947'. 206-23 in O'Connor, A and Clarke, D V, From the Stone Age to the 'Forty-Five': Studies Presented to R B K Stevenson, Former Keeper, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland. John Donald: Edinburgh

Cree, J E (1923) 'Account of the excavations on Traprain Law during the summer of 1922'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 57 (1922-3), 180-226

Cree, J E (1924) 'Account of the excavations on Traprain Law during the summer of 1923'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 58 (1923-4), 241-84

Cree, J E & Curle, Alexander O (1922) 'Account of the Excavations on Traprain Law during the Summer of 1921'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 56 (1921-2), 189-259

Cruden, S H (1940) 'The Ramparts of Traprain Law; excavations in 1939'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 74 (1939-40), 48-59

Curle, A O (1915) 'Account of excavations on Traprain Law in the Parish of Prestonkirk, County of Haddington, in 1914'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 49 (1914-15), 139-202

Curle, A O (1920) 'Report of the excavation on Traprain Law in the summer of 1919'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 54 (1919-20), 54-124

Curle, A O (1923) The treasure of Traprain: a Scottish hoard of Roman silver plate. Glasgow

Curle, J (1932) 'An inventory of objects of Roman and provincial Roman origin found on sites in Scotland not definitely associated with Roman constructions'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 66 (1931-2), 354-62

Curle, A O & Cree, J E (1916) 'Account of Excavations on Traprain Law in the Parish of Prestonkirk, County of Haddington, in 1915. With Description of the Animal Remains'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 50 (1915-16), 64-144

Curle, A O & Cree, J E (1921) 'Account of the Excavation on Traprain Law during the Summer of 1920'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 55 (1920-21), 153-206

Edwards, A J H (1935) 'Rock sculpturings on Traprain Law, East Lothian'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 69 (1934-5), 122-37

Edwards, A J H (1939) 'A massive double-linked silver chain'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 73 (1938-9), 326-7

Erdrich, M, Gianotta, K M and Hanson, W S (2000) 'Traprain Law: native and Roman on the northern frontier'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 130 (2000), 441-455

Feachem, R W (1956) 'The fortifications on Traprain Law'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 89 (1955-6), 284-9

Feachem, R W (1963) A guide to prehistoric Scotland. Batsford: London

Hogg, A H A (1951) 'The Votadini'. In Grimes, W F, Aspects of archaeology in Britain and beyond: essays presented to O G S Crawford. London

Hogg, A H A (1975) Hill-forts of Britain. Hart-Davis, MacGibbon: London (p 95-9)

Horn, J. Forthcoming. The dating of hillforts in Britain and Ireland. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Hunter, F (1996) 'Trapain Law (Prestonkirk parish), Iron Age artefacts, medieval building'. Disc Exc Scot (1996), 37

Hunter, F (2000) 'Traprain Law, East Lothian (Preston kirk parish), Iron Age finds; Roman pottery'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 1 (2000), 29

Hunter, F (2001) 'Traprain Law, East Lothian (Prestonkirk parish), later prehistoric artefacts'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 2 (2001), 36

Hunter, F (2005) 'Traprain Law (Prestonkirk parish), later prehistoric buildings; medieval building; Roman finds'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 6 (2005), 56

Hunter, F (2006) 'Traprain Law, East Lothian (Prestonkirk parish), excavation'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 7 (2006), 61-62

Hunter, F (2011) 'Traprain Law, East Lothian (Prestonkirk parish), excavation'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 12 (2011), 69

Hunter, F and Dunwell, A (2003) 'Traprain Law (Prestonkirk parish), survey; test pitting; fieldwalking'. Disc Exc Scot, New Ser, 4 (2003), 62

Jobey, G (1976) 'Traprain Law: a summary'. In Harding, D W, Hillforts: later prehistoric earthworks in Britain and Ireland. London

RCAHMS (1924) The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions of Scotland. Eighth report with inventory of monuments and constructions in the county of East Lothian. HMSO: Edinburgh

Rees, T (1997) 'Traprain Law (Prestonkirk parish), medieval structure; Iron Age artefacts'. Disc Exc Scot (1997), 30

Rees, T and Hunter, F (2000) 'Archaeological excavation of a medieval structure and an assemblage of prehistoric artefacts from the summit of Traprain Law, East Lothian'. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 130 (2000), 413-440

Robertson, A S (1970) 'Roman finds from non-Roman sites in Scotland'. Britannia 1 (1970), 198-226 Robertson 1970), 226

Stat Acct (date) Statistical Account of Scotland: Drawn up from the Communications of the Ministers of the Different Parishes (Sinclair, J ed), 1791-99

Strong, P (1986) 'Traprain Law (Prestonkirk p), fort, rampart'. Disc Exc Scot (1986), 20

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The online version of the Atlas of Hillforts of Britain and Ireland should be cited as:

Lock, G. and Ralston, I. 2017.  Atlas of Hillforts of Britain and Ireland. [ONLINE] Available at: https://hillforts.arch.ox.ac.uk.

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